Ever since India was liberated from the hands of colonizers, the nation has seen commendable growth even after being caged for more than 100 years. India’s unity in diversity is the main force behind its rise. Even though the country has different flavours at its different corners, it has managed to rise with power. The view of India as a superpower is highly controversial. There are several factors about India which are considered to be in favor of India being a superpower. But, some factors speak as to why India must not be a superpower.
Before knowing why and why not India is hailed as a superpower, let’s know the nation briefly. India is a country belonging to the continent of Asia. It lies in the Southern part of Asia and is the seventh-largest country in terms of area. India yields the second largest population in the country and has people belonging to different cultures, traditions, religions, beliefs, and castes. The nation has adopted democracy as its form of government and is the world’s most populous democracy. India is described as a pluralistic, multilingual, and multi-ethnic society. Once a broken nation after independence, India is now credited as the country that saw the fastest economic growth with a massive hub for information technology services and advancement. It has also developed its military and defense bases with modern weapons and techniques.
India has observed several internal conflicts warring with neighbors, prominently Pakistan for Kashmir and China. India’s political system is transparent, and the power resides in the hands of citizens to choose their government. India follows the principles which, enshrined in its Constitution. India has three organs, legislature, executive, and judiciary, all of which are independent in their nature of work. Agriculture is the dominant occupation in India which is why it is also known as an agrarian country. However, with technological advancement, the country is also seeing a sharp rise in occupations in secondary and tertiary sectors. India mastered its economic growth after the implementation of the LPG model in 1991. This made India recognized globally. Today, the economic body of India is the NITI Ayog.
This was a small precap of India and how it evolved to be in the race of progress and development. India is highly viewed as potential enough for being a superpower, mainly because of its demography, economy, and military expansion. Here are the exact reasons why India is considered to be the ideal for being a superpower.
- Ideal location
India has an ideal location as it lies in the portion of the Indian ocean. This is where there is a high chance of growing transoceanic trades. Here many Eurasian and Afro-Asian sea routes for trade pass by. The positioning of India is central, which makes it ideal for its multitude of harbors and resources. It is believed that the world will shift to the renewable energy age when the technologies turn to be sustainable economically. India lies in the tropical belt and has the much-required facility to generate energy in the future. In addition to this, India is also the owner of 25% of thorium resources.
- The Variations in Demography
India has cultures thriving at every corner. It has people with different ideas, views, and innovations under one spot. The contribution of demography in making India a suitable superpower can be understood as:
- Large Population: India accounts for the second largest population in the world. In addition to this, India is also having vast variations in its population. India also has 50% of its population below the age group of 24. This implies that the future of the country could be a prosperous one.
- Young Force = Work Force.
India accounts for the most number of young people as a part of its population compared to the other developed countries. It has 65% of the population who are below the age of 35. This indicates that India will have a major workforce and, in addition to it, an innovative one. If all these young people are assured qualifications and exposure to technology, India will race ahead in inventions and innovations. This would then positively impact economic growth and form a society based on broad and logical thinking.
- The Contribution of Diaspora:
Around 32 million Indians are living abroad in different countries around the globe. In addition to this, they have also grown successful both socially and economically in different countries.
- Learning of Foreign Language:
India has the largest number of English-speaking people because it also has the largest number of doctors, IT professionals, engineers, etc. India also has people who are fluent in speaking Japanese, Dutch, Mandarin, Chinese, Korean, Russian, German, Spanish, Italian, and French.
- The Political Structure of India:
The primary form of governance in India is a democracy along with a quasi-federal form of government. India has the most powerful democratic republic nation in comparison to the current Superpower USA. Though India is full of ambivalent ethnic groups, it has successfully operated as a democratic government. India is also persuading the United Nations body to be a permanent member. Russia, Uk, and France have supported it. India has cordial foreign relations with other countries. It has successfully maintained amicable relations with the United Kingdom, European Union, the Middle East, and South Asian countries. India has also been the founder of the somewhat third unit during the Cold War, the Non-Aligned Movement. It has also been an active part of the UN’s peacekeeping mission.
- The Military Strength
India stands on the third pedestal for having the strongest and largest military forces in the world. The Indian Air Force, fourth largest in the world, serves the nation with hardwork and dedication. It is already on its path to developing the fifth-generation stealth aircraft. India has the world’s fifth-largest navy force. It is considered to have the most substantial blue water capacities, using indigenously designed technology.
- The Booming Economy
Currently, India has the third-largest economy in terms of PPP: Power Product Parity, after the USA and the Republic of China. India overshadowed China to be the fastest-growing economy in the year 2015. India is the second-largest producer of food after China. Along with it, India also has several IT hubs which are only expanding with time. India is considered to be the World’s Office and leads in the Services sector.
While these are the reasons why India is suitable to be a superpower, a good portion of people object to India climbing the superpower ladder. India, as per the other side of the story, is not politically stable. Many policies are just framed to lure people into voting with the government and opposition at the competition. It has also been prone to various insurgencies like the Khalistan insurgency, Tripura insurgency, and others.
Even after persuasion, India still lacks an international representation. It is still not a permanent member of the United Nations. As a result, it is only confined to certain limits when it comes to the articulation of ideas or suggestions. It is amongst the four nations that are seeking to be permanent members of the United Nations.
Poverty does not seem to leave India. Even after so many initiatives, the government appears to struggle to bridge the gap between poor and rich. According to the census of 2011, 21.9% of the Indian population are living below the poverty line. With this, the growth can only be seen in urban areas, and rural India is lost in the race of upliftment.
Though India has a huge population of young people, it is still suffering to generate employment opportunities for these people. Even after people have the qualifications, they are unable to find suitable and payable jobs. India’s growth in the service and IT sector did not match with the growth for manufacturing. As a result, job and employment opportunities had not increased.
India does not have the best health facilities, and it has always faced staggering basic amenities for hospitals. The recent scenario of the pandemic is enough to portray how India was in a state of dishevelment for meeting the needs of hospital beds, vaccines, oxygen tanks, and medicines. Other diseases like HIV-AIDS continue their spread in the Indian population. As per the data by the United Nations Development Programme, India has the third-largest population in the world who are suffering from HIV-AIDS.
The question for India to be a superpower will receive ambiguous answers. While it has so many potentialities to be a superpower, the loopholes cannot vanish in a mere number of years. India needs to strengthen itself in all the fields before anything else. It needs to create a long-term development plan to sustain itself and achieve the title of Superpower. It needs to work on ensuring that the population makes the necessary contribution to the country’s development. Only then will India be able to succeed over the title of Superpower. It is how Swami Vivekananda quotes, “It is the duty of every person to contribute to the development and progress of India.”