Article

DIABETES

By – Dr Jyotsana Anand Suri

Diabetes , Types , Symptoms , Risk factors , Prevention , Treatment

High blood sugar in the body in simple terms is called Diabetes. When the body doesn’t use the hormone insulin properly, it causes an increase in sugar level.Following simple rules can prevent both Diabetes . Engage in Physical exercise on day to day basis, Maintain a healthy weight, Indulge yourself in a low carbohydrate rich fiber diet, Consume more fruits and vegetables rich diet, Avoid processed food rich in artificial sugar and salt, Avoid alcohol and smoking .

TYPES

Type 1 diabetes also called Diabetes Insipidus occurs mostly in young children, teenagers but can be seen in adults too. In this type of diabetes, the body doesn’t produce insulin at all.

Type 2 Diabetes also called Diabetes Mellitus occurs when the body doesn’t use the insulin produced. It can be seen among children, young age group people, and older adults too.

Pre-diabetes in this the sugar level going slightly higher than can lead to Diabetes. However by reducing weight if obese and changing lifestyle at this stage one can prevent the development of diabetes.

SYMPTOMS

Though in the early stage of diabetes you may or may not experience symptoms it may start damaging various organs of the body including eyes, kidneys, heart.

  • Hunger increased more than normal
  • Thirst increases more than normal
  • More visits to the bathroom due to frequent urination
  • Unusual tiredness
  • Delayed healing of bruises, ulcers
  • Tingling sensation in hands and feet
  • Frequent infections including skin, gums

RISK FACTORS

Obesity – Overweight is the most important risk factor for type 2 diabetes. If you are overweight you must take extra care of yourself by regular checkup of sugar readings.

Family history – It is the second most important factor if diabetes runs into your family history than you are at a higher risk of developing it at an early or later age.

Pregnancy – A kind of diabetes called Gestational Diabetes occurs only during pregnancy and gets away after pregnancy. But women should always take care to prevent themselves from getting gestational diabetes during pregnancy.

Lifestyle – Improper lifestyle like inadequate high-calorie diet, excessive alcohol misuse, Tobacco, or smoking habits increase the risk of type 2 diabetes.

No physical activity – Sedentary lifestyle with no exercise can double the risk of type 2 diabetes especially in obese.

PREVENTION

Diabetes can be prevented at the pre-diabetic stage only but for that, you need to talk to your doctor for exact guidance.

Regular exercise is important to maintain a healthy weight and reduce the risk of diabetes. Try to exercise for at least 20-25 minutes for at least 5 days a week.

Diet rich in cholesterol, fat, carbohydrates increases the risk of diabetes. So you must always try to have a healthy diet rich in fiber, low salt, low fat, and sugar.

You must get your HbA1C checked every 3 months and should have a glucometer at home to monitor your sugar levels.

TREATMENT

Diabetes control by eating right, exercising, maintain a healthy weight, and if required medication is an ideal way to have the best control.

Diet – Low carbohydrate diet by looking at the portion size is important. Diet should include whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. You must avoid alcohol, smoking as much as possible.

Exercise – Regular exercise maintains blood sugar in the best way. You must always try to indulge in exercise for at least 6 days a week. Brisk walking for at least 30 minutes is highly beneficial. Exercise is good for the heart, bones, and good overall health of the body.

Control Obesity – Obese people are more at risk of diabetes so maintaining a healthy weight is important to control the risk of diabetes.

Medication – If your diabetes is not controlled by the above ways you must always talk to your doctor and start with oral medication according to the prescription given by the doctor. Oral medication work mostly in type 2 diabetes only. For Type 1 diabetes your doctor may prescribe you Insulin injections according to requirement.

LIVING WITH DIABETES

Once you are diabetic you can live a normal life then also by having well-controlled diabetes. If blood glucose levels are not controlled on time it can lead to organ damage and serious health issues. The longer the blood glucose levels are not controlled more damage it can cause.

On a final note, I would like to add keeping the blood sugar levels at ideal can prevent the various health problems diabetes can cause.

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